i. There is a line among the fragments of the Greek poet Archilo- chus which says: 'The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing. There is a line among the fragments of the Greek poet. Archilo chus which says: ' The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing.'2 Scholars. PDF | In this paper, we present a decision support system which is built upon an for the effective management of teams including both hedgehogs and foxes.

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PDF | On 6 June , it will be 70 years since D-Day. This article, drawn from my book on the topic (Grint, ), reconfigures the operation as a contest. The Hedgehog and the Fox is an essay by philosopher Isaiah Berlin—one of his most popular . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Isaiah Berlin, Article by Tom Quirk. Isaiah Berlin's most quoted essay is The Hedgehog and the Fox. Berlin's biographer, Michael. Ignatieff, explained that.

On a 'factual' level, different mythological units are given in a form familiar to us from epic and tragedy. This excludes not only the hypothesis of a genuine Oriental source but also that of an intermediary Greek one. All in all, we cannot help concluding with Fehling that 'Herodotushimself planned it that way after carefully work- ing out what the Persians ought or ought not to know according to the logic of the story' p.

Such considerations lead Fehling to the conclusion that this particular story excellently demon- strates his thesis on Herodotus' inventions of sources. I do not intend to debate here the overall thesis, with which I disagree above, n.

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Consider first the status of Herodotus' informants. They are 'learned', or Xoytoi av5p? Above all, they are not EiXcploi,39 and no 33As Drews 89 once put it: Cf, briefly, Fowler 85 bawds and brawlers,whose exploits are more reminiscent Dionysius of Miletus? Long 34Pelliccia identifiesthis move as a 'false-start ago, von Fritz 2. Cf also n. As Luraghi ing foil' p. But cf Thomas with n. Reinhardt,in Marg ed. Recently, it is true, there have been some suc- XoyitotaivpeS are not an institutiontypical of barbarian cessful efforts to prove Hdt.

ContraJacoby and, in general, Murray Diels, thoughtcautiously of Hecataeus ;Pagel see in particularH. Verdin,AncSoc 1 , esp.

Marincola Pelliccia Hecataeus ,and, differently,A. WECOWSKI local traditionor any other source of theirknowledge is referredto; hence they are by no means a privilegedsourceof information. Instead,they presentthe most partisanversions of tales about 'abductionsof women'; moreover,they deeply disagree among themselves about what really happened. In a word, the whole account does not contain any element typical of the usual Herodoteantechniques of 'make-believe'.

This impression is furthersupportedby his ostentatious and obviously ironic agnosticism about those tales in 1. Firstof all, two of the abduction-cases Europeand lo are strikingindeed, as they form prime examples of Zeus's love affairs,a theme often used to producea comical effect in Greek literature. Could it not have appearedfunny to the contemporaryGreekpublic that the 'clever Persians'were not able to name those responsible 1.

Considerother blatantomis- sions, such as the anonymouswarshipsailing to Colchis, which is in fact the world-famousArgo, or perhapsmore amusingly still 'the other things for which they had come' KaitraXa TCOV?

But Herodotus'most telling hint comes last. After pre- senting the account of Alexander's rape of Helen, Herodotus directly gives the floor to the Persians,who offer their comments i. Grene, modi- fied. VytvalKO;, is far from innocent, if we remind ourselves of a widespreadancient opinion about the 'integrity'of Spartanwomen. And this is precisely what the slanderersof Helen repeatedlysay in Greekliterature,as it is the motif brilliantlyrefutedin the Defence of Helen by Gorgias- a work perhapsinspiredby this Herodoteanpassage.

It is worth noting mythical period e. In general, see Millender , as comparedto the rest of the Histories.

Thommen,MH56 , , who establishes a functional analogy and Cartledge Non vidi: Pomeroy, between the prologue and 2. Thomas offers some intriguing Pelliccia , who remains very cautious in analogies of this 'false-start'from medical writers. If we leave aside the amusing 'barbariandisguise' of the tales, we have to notice thatthey are thoroughlyGreek.

The whole passage has an undoubtedlyparodic flavour. To my mind, to look for a single particularGreek source or model for our tales is to put our question in the wrong terms.

CarolynDewald observed that, in the tales underscrutinyhere, 'for Herodotus'Greekaudiences,their legends and myths hover as an unspokenghostly presence on the narrativestage'.

The very logic of the narrativeimplies this 'ghostly presence' of 'missing Greekmythographersand poets'. Both Hecataeusand Thucydidesallude to theirpredecessorsin orderto discreditthe traditionsprovidingthe starting-pointfor theirrespec- tive works50and to stress the exceptional value of their own enterprise,based upon their new methodological principles.

We must then ask ourselves about the broadertraditionbeing parodied by the author. Drews 89 thought, among other things, of the method of 'subjective rationalization'of myth by Herodotus'predecessors.

I would arguethat, though 'translating'original deeds of gods and heroes into those of highly non-heroichumans,Herodotusis not interestedin 'rationalization'as such, i. Instead,he just passes them over in silence53and, what is more, this very decision trig- gers the amusing effect of the tales.

Thatis how, I would fare. Note that in his parodic version of the origins ofsay, Thucydides understoodthe function of the 'Persian the conflict between Greeks and barbarians,Hdt.

Xoto thatHdt. Cf also Antiochus 46 Cf Thomas , esp. FGrHist T 1lh, up their points using 'myths' in their epideixeis. For the and F 45 See furtherFowler Corcella ; Homer and Herodotus in particular cf Horblower Thomas passim importantgeneral remarks: For a more traditional possible Hecataeanovertones in Thuc.

Dihle, crediting the overall attitudeof the Greeks to their past Philologus This differs from what he did in 47 Drews 89; cf.

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Lateiner 38 with his short polemics against Hellanicus 1. For the 'iron- significantly perhaps he mentions by name. Greek tales were the metamorphosisof Zeus, that of Io, 48 Dewald and respectively. As far as we can tell, general, Porciani , esp. FGrHist 1 F W1COWSKI To my mind, the most salient feature and the most hilarious aspect of the 'Persian tales' is the overall pattern of an absurdly long chain of mutual paired abductions of women explaining the remote origins of the enmity between Greeks and barbarians, and thus the origins of a major war.

We need not look far to find a literary model for such a chain in Greek tradition. The beginning of the Iliad provides an obvious precedent. Homer does not ask therein the underlying question of the origins and reasons of the Trojan War itself, but, taking the case of Helen as an implicit model a sort of 'absent starting-point' , he introduces the Chryseis and Briseis affairs.

At every stage of the escalating conflict, he shows the rape of a woman as a source of evil. A careful reader of Homer - and Herodotus was no doubt such a reader - cannot miss the fact that the 'cherchez lafemme' motif belongs to a rather superficial register inside the multi-dimen- sional Homeric causality. Ultimately, Homer is interested in a much more profound explanation of the KaKaXthat befall humans.

But we can be sure that some later poets and prose writers understood Homeric causality more superficially. I assume then that by subordinating the whole passage to the 'abduction of women' motif, Herodotus tried amusingly to criticize the common explanation of the origins of great wars between humans. But the entertainingabsurdityof our tales is not only due to the fact that the rape of women becomes the fundamentalexplanatorypatternin history,but also to the fact thatthis patterngath- ers together differentepisodes with no real causal nexus.

Herodotus, I suggest, might have eagerly endorsed the famous declarationof a poet from the Palatine Anthology For 'demythologizationin same playwright BC? I owe this reference to A. Recently, cf. Revermann,JHS and, in much more obscene terms, Priapea Pelliccia , who suggests, however, Bowie for some possible Iliadic echoes in that the main target of Herodotus is the genealogical the 'beginnings'of Thuc. Aristophanes,who fully understoodhis parody,'laughed See, e.

Myres temporallink regulatesthe story of the same family. In and In general,see also Asheri lxiii, our case, the subsequent victims and wrongdoers have with the secondaryliteraturequoted;cf. Whatis more, in or BC? No doubt, this 'and thereafter'- style narrative was also typical of many genealogical and mythographical works in prose. To put it in our own terms, Herodotus'criticism of the 'pseudo-epic causality' is directed against a peculiar habit of constructing superficial explanatory patterns of great events, includ- ing massive wars and destructions of large empires, out of secondary episodes linked together by a very banal if not coarse association of ideas.

Of course, this intellectual habit was not in fact confined to post-Homeric poetry, but was probably more widespread; it almost certainly appearedin some prose writersof the time. This tendencymust have entailedsome profoundconsequencesin the realmof causality,as is clear alreadyfromfr.

In a famous passage in Book 2, he states his own opinion about the origins of the TrojanWar 2. Helen was not presentin Troy at all, but the Greeksdid not believe it: That is what I think, and that is what I am saying here' trans. In fact, the abductionof a woman as the real cause of a great historical or mythical cataclysmis for him a pure absurdity.

But this is not enough to explain the true reason for the conflict. For him as most probablyalreadyfor Homer ,the case of Helen proves paradigmatic and refers the readerto a much deeper reality in both authors, 'divine schemes' automatically imply the KaKa'of the human condition , which usually eludes human comprehension.

Historicalcausality is not a matterof humantit-for-tatactivity,but necessarily has a theological dimension. In his abduction stories, he light-heartedly dismisses the tendency of some of his predecessors and contemporaries to deprive the world of its ethico-religious aspect.

Note that causes the fall of Troyout of sheernepotism ,but our evi- Hdt. Oa'daptia West, interpretednow by Bravo Fraenkelon Ag.

The 100 best nonfiction books: No 28 – The Hedgehog and the Fox by Isaiah Berlin (1953)

Still, rator 3. Kai o65eXyo7; 0 oijgiv oV nti9avo6. Other irrespectiveof some underlyingmythological motifs and memorable 'harem stories' in Hdt. Cf also West 60 Cf. This is exactly what Herodotuswants us to do. We the readersshouldpay no attentionto the series of mutualabduc- tions of women. And this is what Herodotusdoes himself in 1. For my part, I am not going to go on talking about these things, saying that they happenedin this way or that Instead,the man whom I know myself to have been the firstto com- mit injustice againstthe Greeks, etc.

Drews, modified. This total rejectionof the accounts of the 'learnedPersians'and their Phoenicianopponents is generallytaken as correspondingto the alleged dismissal of the heroic past in the opening sen- tence ta y?

Such a sharp distinctionmay not be that of Herodotushimself;64but in any case, by emphasizingonly this side of the matterwe surely miss an importantpoint. In the logic of our pedimentalcomposition, the passage introducingCroesus though without naming him for the moment correspondswith the opening question about the aiTirl of the conflict element 'D' in my diagram. The keynote of the intervening accounts is also the problem of aixrl,65 that of responsibilityand reciprocity.

It seems clear thatby opposing his own interpretationto the pre- ceding stories, Herodotusis less concernedwith the contents of these tales and with their epis- temological status say, myth vs. Henceforth,startingfrom Croesus,his personalinquiry,or iotopir, will be the ultimatewarran- ty of the accuracyand hence usefulness of a peculiar vision of the chain of causes and effects which eventuallyleads to the greatbattles of the PersianWars and beyond. Strasburger,Historia 64 Since Jacoby , this 'great divide' con- 4 ; Fomara and ; Corcella cept has become a true communis opinio.

See, e. I tried to deal with Corcella ; cf Lateiner ; Hartog this set of problems in my doctoral dissertation n.


Harrison and Cobet Kal[pap3dapotot of the incipit is of whole section, as it marks the transition from the first course carefullymeditatedby Hdt. His initial divertimentoobviously belongs to the intel- lectual environmentof the 'agonistic, display-orientedmode of exchangingand discussing ideas' above, n.

The authorialself-presentationof the prologue is both light-heartedand serious at the same time. At the very outset of his work, Herodotus'own stance is definedper differen- tiam, as opposed to some popularhabits of mind of his intendedaudience and its literarytradi- tions. This enables him both to define the method of his inquiryinto the origins of the conflict, and to give implicitly a more profoundcriticism of a particularview of the world.

All this is no doubt intendedto establish the author'sauthority,i. The 'negative definition'of Herodotus'knowledge gives the impressionof a deliberatelyinnovativeattitudeon the partof the author,but some obvious traditionalundertones of the prologue see below point to the contrary.

In the following section, I shall try to clarify the exact natureof his knowledge and literarypersona. From this standpoint,he seems a steadfastcontinuator of Homer and epic tradition. Although at the very beginning Herodotusintroducesa broadand rather non-poetic idea of recording tz sve yev6L? With the notion of 'greatness' deserving the unqualified glory conferredby the writer who saves these?

However, if we look at a relevantpassage at the end of the 'extendedpreface', we get quite a differentimpression. Both negative final clauses of the opening sentence acquirea supplementarydimensionwhen confrontedwith theirpendant in the ring-compositionsketched above elements 'B' and 'C'.

The 'time factor', which threatens'the deeds of men' and may cast the shadow of oblivion on 'great and wonderfulachievements'is furtherspecified in 1. For of those that were great in earlier times most have now become small, and those that were great in my time were small in the time before' 1. Grene, modified.

In these words scholars have rightly perceived anotherHomeric echo, namely the allusion to the opening lines of the Odyssey Od.

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Thus, the Herodoteannar- ratortakes his road following in Odysseus' footsteps. For, unexpectedly,after reading the incipit, one realizes that here the notion of 'greatness' and, consequently,that of 'glory' is qualified and becomes problematic. This is a truly noteworthydeclaration,since, as far as we can see, it goes directly 'against the current'of the literarytradition s and 'habitsof mind'popularin Herodotus'time.

On the one hand,the Greeks do not usually perceive a temporalor historicalrelationshipbetween their own 'age of iron' and 69 See above all Pohlenz 3, 9; Huber 70 Cf. In general, see furtherMarincola Jaeger quoted by Pagel 71 Pace Nagy Strasburger Boedeker Both attitudes amount to the fact that, in the Greek popular view, 'greatness' becomes a rather static idea, especially when applied to great things or deeds extending over the space of both 'human'and 'mythical' times.

It is not mere propagandaor megalomaniaif an aristocraticfamily tries to traceits origins froma god or a hero, or when citizens of a prosperouscity are disappointednot to find a mention of their past great- ness or their valiant eponyms in 'good old poetry'. This is a well-known feature of 'genealogical thinking', in which fluid tradi- tions change and adaptconstantlyunderthe pressureof changing actual power relationships. As com- pared with the 'narrowing' logic of the opening sentence from 'the deeds of men' to the aitri2l of the conflict via 'great and wonderful achievements' , Herodotus' thinking here develops in the opposite direction: We should also note the peculiar arrangement of the last sentence 1.

I will make mention of both alike' boio6O;. This framing, emphasizing the word ooifio;, has rightly been considered by Wolfgang Schadewaldt as a clear signal of Herodotus' declared objectivity and of his humanistic outlook.

It is only here that we can appreciate the full force of the corresponding expression Ta yevolefva E5 av06p6icovin the incipit. His proclaimedfirst aim is actually to recordall the various kinds of humanactivity. Both ideas are complementaryand introducethe notion of the 'cycle of humanaffairs'.

The true contents of this special type of 73 Cf, in general, Murray 22; Cobet Selbsthistorisierungdes Autors see now R6sler , ; cf. Corcella Women, gap between past andpresentand thereforeof the need to and, on the other, the overall attitude of Pherecydes of bridge it. Athens FGrHist 3 passim. R6sler, Philologus , 'inquiry'. However, as B. Bravo warnsme, this passage pointedout, the use of the imperfecttense while referring may be interpolated.

Now, in his paperon 'Herodotosand his contemporaries'RobertFowler quotes two passages pertinentto Herodotus,where appearsthe idea of ao pit, which the 'wise man' should seek and not begrudgebut performor demonstrateto others.

To answer this question, some formal considerationsmay again be help- ful. In a paperdevoted to the 'hymnal elements in the philosophicalprose of the Presocratics', Karl Deichgraberpresents a very interesting formal analysis of the fragment59 B 12 DK of Anaxagoras, an older contemporaryof Herodotus. Deichgraberidentifies several features in respect of which Anaxagoras'prose approximatesto solemn enunciationsof religious poetry, namely the repetitionof what he calls the 'notion of totality' Allbegriff.

Interestingly,we find similar formal devices in the last sentences of the Herodotean prologue: It seems that some formal devices of 'hymnal' or religious poetry help both authorsto attain this a?

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We will find this, for example, throughoutthe extantfragmentsof Heraclitus. True,for Anaxagoras, those formal devices serve to capturethe infinite, un-mixed and self-ruled natureof the Mind and its greatestpower, arrangingthe rotationof the elements of the Universe.

Herodotus,on the other hand,propoundsthe idea of the mutabilityand instabilityof humanaffairs. But those dif- ferences on a 'doctrinal'level are much less importanthere than formal correspondencessug- gesting a common underlyingtradition. B 50 DK. It becomes com- prehensibleas the carefully statedsubjectof the work resultingfrom the awarenessof the under- lying unity of all the variety of human affairs.

Jin above , but cf. Seaford, 'Aeschylus and the unity of oppo- ; R. For the 'unity of 81 Fowler Fowler suggests to me per lit- the physis' in Hdt. Thomas and, in gen- Hdt. B 54 DK. For the incipit of Hdt. Koenen, ZPE 97 Deichgriber,Philologus 88 , esp. From this perspective, I would tentatively conclude that Herodotus'project may well have been quite close to Thucydides' in that, by dismissing the mythical war par excellence to intro- duce his own authoritative opinion concerning the relatively recent past, he might have sug- gested that the 'truthaboutman',88and thus the 'paradigmatic'value of wisdom literature be it poetry,philosophy,medicine, history,etc.

If so, what Thucydidesdid in his prologue was only radi- cally to sharpenthe standardsdiscovered by Herodotus- both in his method of inquiry and in the temporalscope of his work. The ultimately 'monistic' vision of Herodotus'prologue is closely relatedto his rejection of the 'Persiantales' andthe intellectualhabitsbehindthem, andto the implicitcriticismof the 'fac- tual' tendency in the Weltanschauungof some Greeks of the sixth and fifth centuryBC.

From this standpoint,unexpectedly,Herodotusseems a perfect 'hedgehog' in Berlin's categorization- a hedgehog, moreover,well awareof his nature. However,it goes withoutsaying thatquite often in the Histories, this universal and monistic outlook is easily lost from sight. We cannot help admittingthat Herodotusfrequentlyconcentrateson what is simply worth narrating,on 'things or objects devoid of deeper meaning, but interesting nonetheless and capable of provoking curiosity'.

We might of course account for this tension inherent in the Histories as a natural clash between theory and practice, or explain it in terms of the Entwicklungsgeschichteof the work.

Assessing its internalincoherencein this way, we should come close to a typical conclusion of literarycriticism regardingTolstoy: As a matterof fact, eD8atgiovilv KTX. It has, on the one hand, countless par- KatiTapacXraiTov? Note that the similar allels in the utterancesof otherGreekwriters and partic- position of this passage in the prologue of Thucydides a ularly poets posing as wise men, so it was no doubtreal- powerful coda strongly suggests, once again, that he ly wise for their intendedpublic.

On the otherhand,this modelled his prologue on that of Hdt. Cf above, n. Cf also H. Immerwahr,AJP 61 prologue in which the author'smost importantprinciples 90; H.

Barth, Klio 50 ; Ch. Hunzinger, are introducedin the drolly parodicabductiontales sug- Ktema 20 ; Thomas , esp. For 'egotism' and Hdt. To explain this paradoxicaltension, then, we need for the last time to catch a glimpse of the wider context of Herodotus'intellectualachievement. At the very beginning of my paper I suggested that among the Presocraticsthere existed a debatebetween the exponents of two diametricallyopposite modes of thinking.

A fierce quarrel between, to put it briefly, Ioopirand noXtuAolyir , seems to have continued until the formative but in view oof the saterm years of Plato's thought, bsage of the sokuia6Oeic in Aristotle,92it appears to have ended quite soon afterwards.

In both Plato and Xenophon, Socratesbecomes a valiant championof eptXocoqpia against different representativesof noXugaOjia. Most revealing here is a passage from a discussion between Socrates and Hippias Xen. Here, an exemplarypolymath93opposes his manifoldinterests,his wide learningand his love of novelty to the 'monistic' thought and method of Socrates. The problemof the relationshipbetween pXocro piaand coXLugnoOra recurs several times in the spuriousPlatonicLovers c, b, a.

The Hedgehog and the Fox: An Essay on Tolstoy's View of ...

Eventually,in his late Laws, Plato stigmatizesthe influence exercised by poets on young minds. The acquaintancewith poets of all kind can result in tnockuaOia 81 l1a-b ,which, along with ntox?

Hence the need for a well-organizedsystem of educationin the city of the Magnetes. The foregoing passages, along with the fragmentsof Heraclitusand Democritusquoted at the beginning of this paper,seem to sug- gest thatin the troubledintellectualworld of late sixth- and fifth-centuryGreece, when new non- traditionaltypes of wisdom were startingto flourish against the backgroundof the intellectual world of the ancestors, some Greeks became aware of profound differences between various branchesof wisdom andknowledge.

FromHeraclitusonwards,emergingphilosophy in the pre- Platonic meaning of the term had on the one hand to assert its special worth against the tradi- tion of poetic wisdom,97 and on the other to defend its exceptional status against the new, 91Thus Nikolai Akhsharumov,a Soviet critic quoted 94 In general, Plato's language in all these cases by Berlin 7.

Phaedrus a-b. This is the most popular meaning of true philosophers,the exponents of inoXiouOaia'know 7nou'iaoiax or 7oX s0cLl9ea lateron in Greek literature. II b. Friedlander, of a6TapicEca in his characterizationin the Suda s.

Hermes 48 Cf Raaflaub Both adverse camps could be stig- matized using the label of 7roh uLaOia. For our understandingof Herodotus,a very peculiarcase of non-traditional,'display-orient- ed' noku aOfaiacan be revealing.

In anotherdebate between Hippias and Socrates, this time drawnfrom Plato Hp. Fowler, modified , Hippias says that the Lacedaemonians'like to listen to and applaud eiatvooaiv ' his pieces 'about the genealogies of heroes and men' and 'the foundationsof cities in ancient times'.

In short, 'they are very fond of hearingabout antiquityin general itacn;Sti; apXautokoyiaS '. Thus, even the grave Lacedaemoniansare especially interestedin public display-pieces on these various anti- quarianmatters.

In Book 1 of his Stromata Thomas, modified. Strikingly, this is precisely what Herodotusmight have claimed for his work. It is no mere coincidence that Clement qualifies the attitude of his 'Democritus' as tcokOtaOxia. Even grantedthatthis fragmentis in fact a relatively late fabrication,the whole set of claimsjust quotedformsa deep-seatedcommonplaceof ethnographicand geographicliterature. In his paraphraseof a lost passage by Diodorus, Photius Bibl.

I thinkwe can assume thatDiodorusfollowed here quite closely earliertopoi of the periegetic genre. All in all, then, it seems probablethat in fifth-centuryGreece, both branchesof intellectual activity enthusiastically pursued by 'Herodotus' contemporaries', namely to put it briefly apxatiooyi0a includingmythography,genealogy, etc. Of negative one, would be unexplained. I would tentative- course, owing to the well-known standardsof ancient ly suggest that the positive meaning of nokvaaHOiawas polemics, one could easily set upon a thinkerwhose gen- the originalone, precedingthe 'monistic' claims of some eral attitudewas not so different from one's own.

This early philosophers. Influence[ edit ] Some authors Michael Walzer , for example have used the same pattern of description for Berlin himself, as a person who knows many things, compared to the purported narrowness of many other contemporary political philosophers.

Berlin's former student, Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor , has been dubbed a hedgehog by Berlin and readily admitted to it in an interview after receiving the Templeton Prize. Tetlock , a political psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvania , drew heavily on this distinction in his exploration of the accuracy of experts and forecasters in various fields especially politics in his book Expert Political Judgment: How Good Is It?

How Can We Know?. The historian Joseph Ellis , in his Founding Brothers about key figures of the American Revolution, uses Berlin's "Hedgehog and Fox" concept in evaluating George Washington , noting that "Washington was an archetypal hedgehog. And the one big thing he knew was that America's future as a nation lay to the West, in its development over the next century of a continental empire," which was one of the reasons, according to Ellis, of Washington being devoted to construction of canals.

Collins refers to the story in his book Good to Great where he clearly shows his preference towards Hedgehog mentality. The artist Richard Serra referenced the name in the title of his sculpture installed at Princeton University campus in Music historian Berthold Hoeckner applies and extends Berlin's distinction in his essay "Wagner and the Origin of Evil.

He cites the work of Philip E.Moreover, w e distinguish hypothetical arguments 1. This is a well-known feature of 'genealogical thinking', in which fluid tradi- tions change and adaptconstantlyunderthe pressureof changing actual power relationships. Firstof all, two of the abduction-cases Europeand lo are strikingindeed, as they form prime examples of Zeus's love affairs,a theme often used to producea comical effect in Greek literature.

Dewald and J. As you search for your own concept, keep in mind that when the good-to-great companies finally grasped their Hedgehog Concept, it had none of the tiresome, irritating blasts of mindless bravado typical of the comparison companies.

Unlike Homer and Hesiod, the exponents of this attitudeare not interested in the erethico-religious and therefore symbolic aspect of the world. Henceforth,I definepolymathieas a gen- fr. Seaford, 'Aeschylus and the unity of oppo- ; R.

The 'negative definition'of Herodotus'knowledge gives the impressionof a deliberatelyinnovativeattitudeon the partof the author,but some obvious traditionalundertones of the prologue see below point to the contrary.

To my mind, to look for a single particularGreek source or model for our tales is to put our question in the wrong terms.

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