Author: Shenshen Shi. Bachelor's degree (UAS). Final Thesis. AUTOMOBILE BRAKE SYSTEM. Industrial management. A COMMON MISCONCEPTION ABOUT BRAKES IS THAT BRAKES SQUEEZE. AGAINST A DRUM OR DISC, AND THE PRESSURE OF THE SQUEEZING. Wear - Book Elsevier Sequoia S.A., Lausanne - Printed in the Netherlands I55 Reviews Automobile Brakes and Braking Systems. By T. P. NEWCOMB A4~~.
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Introduction. Everybody knows that when you press your foot on the brake pedal the vehicle is supposed to stop. But how does the pressure from your foot get to. The brake system converts the kinetic energy of the moving When selecting a brake system the performance of the powertrain must be taken. Automotive Brakes - Introduction. • The brake system is designed to slow down and halt the motion of the vehicle. • Various components are used in braking.
Pedal The driver of a vehicle steps on the brake pedal to stop the vehicle. The pressing of the pedal moves a piston located in the master cylinder. Master Cylinder The master cylinder is located directly in front of the driver's seat on the firewall in the engine. A master cylinder typically houses two separate master cylinders.
Each master cylinder handles a set of wheels. The master cylinder controls the hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic fluids. The hydraulic tubing lines connect the master cylinder to the brake cylinders. When the pedal is pressed, two internal pistons move and a valve opens in the master cylinder.
The hydraulic fluid must pass through the valve, a chamber and a series of tubes and hoses to get to the brake cylinders.
Brake Booster Mounted on the firewall behind the master cylinder in a power braking system is the brake booster. The booster is a shell divided by a rubber diaphragm into two chambers. Each car features two front brakes and two rear brakes. Most will either have all four as disc brakes or disc brakes in the front and drum brakes in the back.
Disc brakes: Disc brakes are made up of a disc brake rotor, calliper, and brake pads. When pressure is applied through a hydraulic system the brake pads are pushed against the brake rotor, which causes the car to stop. Drum brakes: The main parts of a drum brake system are the brake drum, brake shoes, wheel cylinder and brake springs.
The brake shoes are contained within the brake drum, and when pressure is applied to the wheel cylinder, the brake shoes press against the drum, which cause the car to stop. The brake springs reduce drag by pulling the brake shoes back away from the drum when you take your foot off the brake pedal.
What are anti-lock brakes?
Not everyone agrees on whether anti-lock is a type of brake, a braking system, or simply a safety feature which makes the act of sudden braking a lot smoother for your car. Most new cars are fitted with anti-lock braking systems ABS and they work by preventing the wheels from locking up when the driver brakes suddenly.
Section 2 presents the designed an emergency braking control system for design of the automatic brake system.
Section 3 explains short distances of cars in platooning. Section With respect to experimental results, Gerdes Gerdes and 4 describes the tests performed to evaluate the system and Hedrick, tested a combined engine and brake cont- compare it with a human driver. Section 5 presents the roller for automated highway vehicles based on the idea of integration of the brake with a fuzzy control system, and multiple-surface sliding control in a car.
Kim Kim. Naranjo Naranjo et. Song Song, connected an electrical only the steering wheel and accelerator being controlled.
Thus, the necessary next step Bu and Tan, developed a pneumatic brake used to was to design and implement a braking system. This system accurately halt buses in a station. While the GPS at 5 Hz.
It is an electro-hydraulic system device. It is assembled in coexi- determine the maximum braking pressure to avoid ex- stence with the original circuit for the sake of robustness cessive system stress.
This datum was determined experi- and to permit the two systems to halt the car independently. A wheel was removed, The goal is to have an automatic system capable of and a manometer was connected in lieu of the brake shoe. A pressure limiter tube, the value of which is fixed at bars, is added to protect the car elements involved in the braking process.
This system permits one to obtain the maximum pressure that the original braking system is able to apply on the wheels. Electronic components are needed to regulate this pressure as required by the computer. To this end, two electronic components are included.
One is used to regulate the pressure between 0 and the maximum value, and the other, to transmit this pressure from the pump to the wheels. To regulate the flow of the pressure, an electro- proportional pilot is installed with a nominal pressure Figure 2.
Locations of the shuttle valves. The control voltage varies bet- ween 0 and 10 volts. The electro-proportional pilot yields a the shuttle valve. It is duplicated braking signal. Therefore, two shuttle valves are normally open, and is only closed when the proportional used to switch between the conventional and the electro- pilot is actuated.
Automobile brakes and braking systems
The outputs of the two shuttle These two elements cause delays that cannot be disre- valves are connected to the ABS inputs. Finally, the ABS garded if good behavior of the system is desired. At the performs the distribution of the braking. For this reason, the shuttle valves are installed directional valve, the switching time of which is about 30 as closely as possible to the ABS. One can see in the figure ms.
For subsequent sampling periods, the spool directional the two inputs of each shuttle valve. The lower input is valve is already closed, and the delay corresponds only to connected to the automatic electro-hydraulic braking system, that of the electro-proportional pilot, being even in the and the upper input, to the original system.
The system described is designed to operate when built Following the design of the hydraulic and electronic into the AUTOPIA control system, which has a sampling components, the system needs to be plugged into the period of ms. The design constraints of the braking existing car braking system.
To this end, a shuttle valve is system were that it should not introduce significant delays. The largest delay appears on initiation of the automatic This valve permits flow from either of two inlet ports to a brake and is the sum of the shuttle valve and the spool common outlet. A free-floating metal ball shuttles back- directional valve delays, the result being 31 ms.
Scope of the Report
In the and-forth according to the relative pressure at the two following sampling periods, there only exist the delays in inlets. Flow from the higher pressure inlet through the the electro-proportional pilot, with values less than 10 ms. This valve The automatic system operates as follows. It is turned on is thus responsible for the switching between the two by means of a manual switch installed in the dashboard.
It was chosen because the low value of activated when the switch is turned on. As long as the spool the flow through the braking system permits one to select a directional valve is open, a bar pressure appears through valve of the least diameter that also has the smallest float- the electro-proportional pilot and the flow is driven back to ing ball, thus minimizing the switching time.
The valve is the tank. When the spool directional valve is closed, the mounted such that the ball under gravity maintains the pressure is applied to the shuttle valves and pushes their standard braking system open when the electro-hydraulic metal balls to the upper position to allow the brake fluid to system is switched off. From this moment The shuttle valve introduces a delay associated with the onwards, the braking can be regulated by means of the movement of the metal ball between the two inlets.
The electro-proportional pilot. The choice This posed a new problem: This reserved for the spare wheel. The compact design allows pressure increased and exerted a force on the brake shoes, the use of this location, where the pump is protected and eventually the car became permanently braked.
Common Types of Brakes and Braking Systems
The against collisions and damage that may be caused by the adopted solution was to communicate the two tanks by driver is avoided. The spare wheel is now located in the means of a tube. A perforation was made in the impervious same place under the chassis. Another perforation in the vent plug of the original battery. This battery is fixed to the chassis by means of an tank was made to communicate the two tanks.
In that way, elastic strap and can be recharged with a socket in the the necessary air vent for the pump was supplied by the lateral wall of the car that is directly connected to the car original tank. The tank of the pump was filled to the limit, battery. The tube installed in the pump can be seen in DC motor.
A CAN bus module is used to control the spool Figure 3. This module consists of a 6- 4. The Several tests were performed to evaluate its behavior in CAN module voltage supply is connected to the battery different situations, with very good results. This circuit represents an inner-city area, with a time as the DC motor. One is divided intersections.
The longest straight-road segment was used into two and connected to the shuttle valves.Your safety is important to us. Such a unit can be mounted anywhere in the engine compartment instead of having to be directly in front of the pedal. To this end, two electronic components are included. In order to minimize such incidents, the Indian government has made it mandatory for all automobile companies to install anti-lock braking systems in their vehicles by April Disc Brakes Most vehicles have disc brakes only on the front wheels, though newer vehicles may have disc brakes on all four wheels.
Since dependence on driver reaction is the main cause of road accidents, it would be advisable to replace the human factor in some driving-related tasks with automated solutions.
Types of braking systems The following are the most common types of braking systems in cars today. The Ultimate 20 hour car mechanics video course Learn everything about modern cars from our new video series.
Section 2 presents the designed an emergency braking control system for design of the automatic brake system. The largest delay appears on initiation of the automatic This valve permits flow from either of two inlet ports to a brake and is the sum of the shuttle valve and the spool common outlet.
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